Acari infesting camels and equids in Iran: biodiversity and pathogens they transmit
Paper ID : 1043-IPCA4 (R1)
Authors:
Alireza Sazmand *
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bu-Ali Sina University 6517658978 Hamedan, IRAN
Abstract:
Parasitic diseases of animals are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decrease their performance, and even may cause death. Camels (one-humped dromedaries and two-humped Bactrians) and equids (horses, donkeys and mules) are blood source for several haematophagous ectoparasites, such as ticks, which ultimately may transmit zoonotic and non-zoonotic parasitic and bacterial pathogens e.g. Theileria spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp. and Coxiella burnetii. Furthermore, several genera and species of mites e.g. Sarcoptes scabiei, Chorioptes spp., Psoroptes spp. and Demodex spp. have been reported from camels and equids worldwide. Mites are nuisance for the animals and might be transmitted to humans. However, knowledge on the biodiversity of Acari of camels and equids in Iran and pathogens they transmit is still limited. In this article current knowledge based on the literature from 1931–2021 on the biodiversity of Acari of camels and equids in Iran and pathogens associated with them is reviewed. To date in Iran, infestation of camels with 13 tick species of the genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus and Alveonasus in addition to Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli and Demodex spp. have been identified. From horses, donkeys and mules 16 species of the Ixodidae (hard ticks) from five genera (Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor and Hyalomma) have been collected. Psoroptes ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei var. equi and Chorioptes bovis have been also isolated from horses. In regards to tick-borne pathogens, DNA of Theileria equi, Theileria annulata, Babesia caballi, Candidatus Anaplasma camelii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum-like bacteria and Coxiella burnetii have been examined in the blood of camels and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in ticks attached to them. Moreover, in the blood, sera and ticks of equids (Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa) DNA of Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Coxiella burnetii have been diagnosed. The connection between tick-borne pathogens and their vectors in Iran remains largely unknown, and vector-competence of pathogens warrants further investigation. Furthermore, since livestock can act as reservoirs for several potentially zoonotic tick-borne pathogens effective ectoparasite control strategies, regular examination of livestock and successful chemoprophylaxis are advocated.
Keywords:
Acari; Camelus; Equus; Iran; Mite; One-health; Tick; Tick-borne pathogen; Zoonoses
Status : Abstract Accepted (Oral Presentation)